Solvent Cement Information

In this section we will discuss the following:

  1. GENERAL DIRECTIONS ON MAKING A SOLVENT CEMENT JOINT
  2. SUGGESTIONS FOR MAKING A SOLVENT CEMENT JOINT IN HOT AND COLD WEATHER
  3. INITIAL SET TIMES ON BLACK SWAN SOLVENT CEMENTS
  4. CURE TIMES ON BLACK SWAN SOLVENT CEMENTS
  5. APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF JOINTS MADE PER VOLUME OF CEMENT BY PIPE SIZE
  6. SHIPPING INFORMATION ON SOLVENT CEMENTS
  7. WARNINGS AND FIRST AID

1.  GENERAL DIRECTIONS ON MAKING A SOLVENT CEMENT JOINT

  • Examine cement before using. If jelled, replace. Do not use primers or cleaners to thin out cement.
  • Cut pipe square and deburr. Clean and dry joining surfaces.
  • Check dry fit. Pipe should easily go 1/4 to 3/4 of the way into the pipe fitting. Fit should be snug.
  • Use a suitable applicator at least ½ size of the pipe diameter; for larger sizes use brush or roller.
  • Apply Black Swan Primer following directions on can.
  • Apply a full, even layer of cement on the pipe equal to the depth of socket. Coat the fitting socket with a medium layer. Avoid excess and puddling. If necessary, apply a second, full layer on pipe. Cement should fill all gaps.
  • On bell end pipe, do not coat beyond socket depth or allow cement to run beyond bell.
  • Assemble quickly while cement is wet. If not wet, re-coat parts before assembly. Ensure pipe bottoms into fitting socket. Twist 1/8 to 1/4 turn; avoid push-out and allow for initial set, hold for about 30 seconds. Wipe off excess.
  • Allow 15 minutes for good handling strength and 2 hours cure time for temperature above 60°F (16°C) before pressure testing up to 180 psi. For pipe sizes over 2", higher pressure, or temperatures below 60°F (16°C), allow longer cure time. For more information, read Black Swan Set and Cure Time Bulletin.
  • Pressure test often so as to eliminate possible large failures.

 


2.  SUGGESTIONS FOR MAKING A SOLVENT CEMENT JOINT IN HOT AND COLD WEATHER

Problems In Hot Weather

Often, in working with pipe in hot weather, direct rays of the sun may cause surface temperature of pipe to rise to as much as 150° F which is the approximate boiling point of the cement. When cement is applied to such hot surfaces, solvent will evaporate and be gone before any etching action can begin on pipe surface or before pipe can be slipped into fitting socket.

Suggestions for Cementing Pipe in Hot Weather

  • Cool pipe by wiping with a damp cloth. Evaporation of moisture from pipe surface will lower its temperature several degrees. Dry before applying cement.
  • Wipe pipe with Black Swan's PRIMER. Evaporation of the primer/cleaner will cool the surface of the pipe and fitting and will also start the etching action.
  • Keep ends of pipe shaded from hot sun before cementing. Keep fittings shaded also.
  • Get pipe into fittings as quickly as possible after applying cement.

Problems in Cold Weather

In extremely cold weather it takes a much longer time period for the cement to work. Also, snow and moisture can make it more difficult to make a successful joint.

Suggestions for Cementing Pipe in Cold Weather

  • Keep cement and primer in a warm area prior to use. Make sure cement is fluid.
  • Assemble as many joints as possible in a heated work area.
  • Clean pipe and fitting thoroughly. Remove all traces of moisture.
  • Be patient. It can take 5 times longer for cement to set up in cold weather.
  • Never apply heat to a joint to speed up the drying action. This may cause the solvents to evaporate improperly and a successful joint may not be made.
  • Use Black Swan's All Weather PVC Cement. This product is very well suited for cold weather applications.

 


3.  INITIAL SET TIMES ON BLACK SWAN SOLVENT CEMENTS

Temp. Range
Pipe Sizes
1/2" to
1-1/4"
Pipe Sizes
1-1/2" to
3"
Pipe Sizes
3-1/2" to
8"
Pipe Sizes
10" to
15"
Pipe Sizes
15"+
60º - 100ºF 15 min. 30 min. 60 min. 2 hrs. 4 hrs. 
40º - 60ºF 1 hr.  2 hrs. 4 hrs.  8 hrs.  16 hrs. 
0º - 40ºF 3 hrs.  6 hrs.  12 hrs.  24 hrs.  48 hrs.
  • Set time is defined as the amount of time needed before a joint can be carefully handled.
  • Cement goes through three stages during it's working life-thin syrup stage, thick and doughy stage and solid stage. During the thin syrup stage the pipe and fitting are placed together and the initial bond is being made between the pipe, cement and fitting. The second stage is where the solvents are starting to evaporate from the cement and the bonding process is continuing. It is during this thick and doughy stage that the joint should not be moved. At this point the joint is weak and movement could break the connection. And, because the cement is too thick it won't be able to flow back into place to make the connection again. The solid stage is where all the solvents in the cement have evaporated and the joint will be ready for handing and use.
  • Set times given are estimates. There are many variables that enter into the set times and the end user must make the final determination.

 


4.  CURE TIMES ON BLACK SWAN SOLVENT CEMENTS  


Relative Humidity 60% or Less
Cure Time Pipe Sizes 1/2" to 1-1/4" Cure Time Pipe Sizes 1-1/2" to 2" Cure Time Pipe Sizes 2 1/2" to 8" Cure Time Pipe Sizes 10" to 15"
Temp. Range during assembly and cure periods

up to 180 psi

above 180 to 370 psi

up to 180 psi

above 180 to 315 psi

up to  180  psi

above 180 to 315 psi

up to 100 psi

60º - 100ºF 1 hr. 6 hrs. 2 hrs. 12 hrs. 6 hrs.  24 hrs.  24 hrs. 
40º - 60ºF 2 hrs.   12 hrs. 4 hrs.  24 hrs. 12 hrs.  48 hrs.  48 hrs. 
0º - 40ºF 8 hrs.  48 hrs.  16 hrs.  96 hrs.  48 hrs.  8 days 8 days
  • Cure time is defined as the time necessary to allow before pressurizing the system.
  • Cure times given are estimates. There are many variables that enter into cure time and the end user must make the final determination.

 


5.  APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF JOINTS MADE PER VOLUME OF CEMENT BY PIPE SIZE

PIPE SIZES PINT QUART GALLON
1/2" 150 300 1200
3/4" 100 200 800
1" 60 120 480
1-1/2" 45 90 360
2" 30 60 240
3" 20 40 160
4" 15 30 120
6" 5 10 40
8" 2 4 16

 


6. SHIPPING INFORMATION ON SOLVENT CEMENTS

GALLON, 5 GALLON and 55 GALLON DRUMS
Shipping Name - Adhesives, Containing a Flammable Liquid
Hazardous - Yes
Hazard Class - 3
I.D. Number - UN1133
Packing Group - II
Freight Class - 55
Label Required - Flammable Liquid


1/4 PINTS,  1/2 PINTS,  PINTS, AND QUARTS
Shipping Name - Consumer Commodity
Hazardous - No
Hazard Class - ORM-D
I.D. Number - UN1133
Freight Class - 55
Label Required - None

 


7.  WARNINGS AND FIRST AID

PICTOGRAMS: pictogram pictogram


SIGNAL WORD:    DANGER


HAZARDOUS STATEMENTS:

  • Highly flammable liquid and vapor.
  • May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways.
  • Harmful in contact with skin.
  • Causes serious eye irritation.
  • Harmful if inhaled.
  • May cause respiratory irritation.
  • May cause drowsiness or dizziness.

PRECAUTIONARY STATEMENTS:

  • Keep out of reach of children.
  • Keep away from heat, sparks, open flames, hot surfaces - No smoking.
  • Keep container tightly closed and cool.
  • Take precautionary measures against static discharge.
  • Avoid breathing fumes, mist, and vapors.
  • Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing.
  • Wash thoroughly after handling.
  • Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
  • Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
  • Wear protective gloves, protective clothing, eye protection and face protection.
  • Wear a NIOSH approved respirator for organic solvents.

FIRST-AID:

Inhalation: Move into fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen and call physician.

Skin: Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash skin thoroughly with soap and water.

Eyes: Flush with plenty of water for 15 minutes. If irritation persists, get medical attention.

Ingestion: Give 1 or 2 glasses of water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Consult physician immediately.


STORAGE:
Store in cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible material. Store in shade between 40 degrees F to 110 degrees F. Keep container closed when not in use. Keep away from heat, sparks, open flame and other sources of ignition.
Incompatible Materials: caustics, ammonia, inorganic acids, chlorinated compounds, amines, strong oxidizers and isocyanates.


DISPOSAL:
Dispose of product or container in accordance with federal, state or local regulations.